High Levels of Ultrafine PM 1 Particles Found in Delhi-NCR During Oct-Nov, Reveals New Analysis
A four-year high of farm fires in Punjab, local pollution and unfavorable climate condition once again triggered Delhi-NCR to breathe hazardous air in the early months of winter.
PM 2.5 levels prior to Diwali were 12-15 times above safe limitation on a few days. However, those living in Delhi-NCR likewise breathed high levels of ultrafine PM 1 particles mid-October to mid-November, an interim analysis done as part of an ongoing NASA-funded research study on pollution in north India and Indo-Gangetic plains exposed.
Over the period of a month in between mid-October to mid-November, PM 1 levels stayed high in the variety of 200-300 micrograms/cubic metre (ug/m3), said a team of scientists, professors and scientists from Indian Institute of Delhi, Jawaharlal Nehru University and Delhi University. This information was based upon 40 inexpensive sensors.
The analysis of PM 1 particles is necessary as no federal government firm keeps an eye on concentration of these ultrafine particles on a continuous basis, like they keep an eye on PM 2.5 and PM 10 pollution. In reality, there are neither worldwide requirements nor domestic requirements that define the prescribed or safe limits of PM 1 concentration. The World Health Company (WHO) has yearly mean air quality requirements for PM 2.5 and PM 10, but none for PM 1.
These ultrafine particles are deadlier than fine PM 2.5 particles (which are of 2.5 microns in size or lower) as they penetrate the mucous membrane of the lungs and participate in blood stream. Once they go into the bloodstream, these particles can trigger myriad health problems and illness. Depending upon the chemical nature of the particle, it can precipitate intense inflammatory response and personallies with a jeopardized heart function it can cause myocardial infarction, the analysis mentioned.
” Main focus of air contamination story is on PM2.5 however the particles of size 1.0 micron or less in size are more harmful, as they can cross the mucus barrier and through blood flow can reach any organ and cause damages or increase the threat of cancer,” said Dr Arun Sharma, Teacher – Director, Community Medication, University College of Medical Sciences, Delhi University.
Prolonged direct exposure to PM 1 containing Volatile Organic Compounds (VoCs) or polycyclic fragrant hydrocarbons (PAH) can be carcinogenic and teratogenic as well, the analysis said, pointing out released research studies.
As per the State of Global Air Report, 2020 long-lasting exposure to outside and family air contamination contributed to 16,67,000 deaths in India, in 2019, from stroke, cardiac arrest, diabetes, lung cancer, chronic lung illness and neonatal diseases. The report likewise said that in the last decade, 3.73 lakh deaths were connected to direct exposure to high levels of PM 2.5.
As part of this ongoing study, the team of researchers and scientists is keeping an eye on pollution throughout Punjab, Haryana, Delhi-NCR, Uttar Pradesh, Bihar and Jharkhand utilizing independent, inexpensive sensors. Verifying satellite data on pollution is also one of the objectives of this research study, researchers associated with the task said.
” Eventually, 100 such sensors will be in use. It is necessary to determine PM 1 consist of heavy metals and they can easily permeate into our breathing organs. Dust, automobile pollution are some of the sources of this contamination. If there is high concentration of PM 1, it likewise helps in development of larger particles when weather are damaging,” stated Palak Balyan, post-doctoral fellow, Centre for Atmospheric Sciences, IIT-Delhi.
Meteorology and PM 1 particles
Higher concentrations of PM 1 are also an issue as they result in formation of bigger particle contamination and secondary pollutants owing to intricate climatic procedures. Meteorological aspects play an essential role in intensifying particle pollution, due to the combination of solar radiation, moisture levels and calm winds, stated Teacher Surendra Dhaka, Associate Teacher, Department of Physics, Rajdhani College.
Professor Dhaka said that early hours of the early morning show high concentration of pollutants and a spike takes place due to the phenomenon of uplifting, which takes place after sunrise. “With evaporation, there is uplifting of great particles from leaves and the earth. During this procedure, smaller particles start to combine to change into larger particles in the variety of PM 2.5 and above,” said Teacher Dhaka.
The group’s analysis showed that PM 2.5 concentration went from 250-500 ug/m3 in last week of October to above 1,000 ug/m3 prior to Diwali. “In the early hours, there is abundance of submicron particles and it supplies a favourable condition for merging of little particles due to moisture and low temperatures,” Professor Dhaka added.
( the heading, this story has actually not been released by Important India News personnel and is released from a syndicated feed.).